In the Spanish cultural industry, women occupy hierarchical positions in 27.6% of cases, compared to 36.8% of men. Also, based on average annual income, the average salary of women is 80.4% of that of men, which means that the wage gap stands at 19.6% in the world of culture.
These are figures from the report ‘Authors in Audiovisual, Music and Performing Arts. A study on professional development from a gender perspective ‘, prepared by the SGAE Foundation and that has been presented coinciding with the International Women’s Day. For data analysis, the situation of male authors who are members of SGAE in the same sectors, compared to 17% of SGAE members, have been taken as a reference, and more than a thousand interviews have been carried out with authors and three Discussion groups.
The study determines that in the cultural industry there is a vertical segregation that directs women women to positions of less leadership and power. The fact that women take longer to reach this stage than men is due, above all, to a lower recognition of talent and the quality of their proposals, less possibility of being able to dedicate themselves exclusively to the profession, problems to reconcile the work and family life, worse supports, relationships and contacts in the sector, greater discrimination based on gender and bullying problems.
The proportion of women who have submitted to an award in the sector is similar to that of men, and so is the number of contests they have won or in which they have received a mention. However, taking into account the weight that women have in the SGAE, the data indicates that, of the total prizes awarded, 85.8% would have gone to men and only the rest to women (16,3%).
The report shows how the low presence of women in the cultural sector does not correspond to their training academic. When analyzing the enrollment in the different artistic teachings, the data are encouraging: 56.1% of the students are women, compared to 43.9%, who are men. The difference increases between the SGAE author collective, where 68.9% of women have a university degree, master’s degree or doctorate; a figure that is 48.6% in men. A formative difference that occurs in all age groups.
The SGAE Foundation study also investigates the entry barriers that female authorship faces: the reluctance of the family environment (they receive less support to consider this professional alternative as valid: 76.5% of men, compared to 58 , 7% of women), added to the low confidence in women’s own possibilities (60.7% of men had great confidence in their possibilities at the beginning of their career, compared to only 46.3% of women) and the difficulty for work-life balance.
The woman spends 45% more time on housework and family care than man. In this sense, the return to professional activity after the domestic break is more complicated for the authors. 33.5% of female creators between the ages of 55 and 65 are unable to return to work once they finish their work at home, compared to a rate of 14.5% in men of the same age group.
The unemployment rate between genders also doubles in the cultural sector (19.5% of ‘inactive’ women versus 9.3% of men). This data is contrasted with that of moonlighting, necessary for the survival of most of the authors: 39.4% of women, compared to 28.9% of men, since their level of exclusive dedication in the sector is by below the male level (44.1% of men can work exclusively in the sector, compared to 40.3% of women).
The presentation of the study has brought together creators from various disciplines such as Sílvia Quer, Carmen Fernández Villalba, Marta González de Vega, Pilar Palomero, Giulia Valle, Cecilia León, Victoria Szpunberg and Merche and Pilar Granados, general director of the Market Research Center of the Cultural Environment (CIMEC).